HERACLIUS°

HERACLIUS°, emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 610 to 641. He is known for his repression of the Jews as a punishment for their sympathy, aid, and collaboration (alleged andactual) with the Persians during their conquest of Jerusalem in 614. Information on such conduct comes mainly from monastic sources. When Jerusalem was recaptured by Heraclius in 629 he encouraged the indiscriminate slaughter of Jews and ultimately their expulsion from the city. After Edessa was retaken by Heraclius, the Jews continued to resist even after the Persians had surrendered and therefore they were expelled on Heraclius' orders. Shortly afterward the Arabs conquered Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. In 632, motivated by exaggerated stories of Jewish sympathy for Islam, Heraclius decreed the forced baptism of all Jews in the empire, but the decree was enforced only in Carthage. He also put into effect justinian 's novella 146, which interfered with synagogue services and found an echo in contemporary apocalyptic texts. Some scholars consider that Heraclius appears as the notorious King armilus destined to be slain by the Messiah according to the   Hebrew apocalypse Sefer Zerubbavel, written in the 630s. It is reported that Heraclius advised Dagobert, king of the Franks, to kill Jews who would not accept Christianity. Despite his anti-Jewish acts, the Jews of Constantinople were in a strong enough position after his death to participate in a street riot during which they invaded Hagia Sophia. The emperor and his retinue during their stay in Erez Israel were entertained bythe wealthy and prominent benjamin of tiberias , who later converted to Christianity. (See israel , history .) -BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Starr, Jews in the Byzantine Empire (1939), index; idem, in: JPOS, 15 (1935), 280–93; idem, in: Byzantinischeneu-grieschische Jahrbuecher, 16 (1940), 192–6; Hilkowitz, in: Zion, 4 (1927), 256–76; Baron, Social2, 3 (1957), 20–24; A. Sharf, in: Byzantinische Zeitschrift, 48 (1955), 103–15; Hilkowitz, in: Zion, 4 (1939), 307–16; Y. Ibn Shmuel, Midreshei Ge'ullah (19542), 56–92; A.A. Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire, 1 (1965), 195–9. (Andrew p. Sharf)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Héraclius — Empereur byzantin Monnaie à l effigie d Héraclius et de ses fils Constantin III et Héraclonas Règne …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Heraclius — Héraclius Monnaie à l effigie d Héraclius et de ses fils Constantin III et Héraclonas Héraclius Ier (en latin Flavius Heraclius) ou Hérakleios (en grec ancien Ηράκλειος) (né vers 575, règne de …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Heraclĭus — (a. Gesch.), s. Heraklios …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Heraclius — [her΄ə klī′əs, hi rak′lē əs] A.D. 575? 641; Byzantine emperor (610 641) …   English World dictionary

  • Heraclius — Infobox Monarch name =Heraclius title =Emperor of the Byzantine Empire caption =Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine reign =October 5, 610 – February 11, 641 coronation =October 5, 610 full name =Flavius Heraclius Augustus predecessor =Phocas… …   Wikipedia

  • Heraclius — /her euh kluy euhs, hi rak lee euhs/, n. A.D. 575? 641, Byzantine emperor 610 641. * * * ▪ Byzantine emperor born c. 575, , Cappadocia died Feb. 11, 641, Constantinople  Eastern Roman emperor (610–641) who reorganized and strengthened the… …   Universalium

  • Heraclius — Solidus des Herakleios mit seinen Söhnen Konstantin III. und Heraklonas. Herakleios (griechisch Flavios Heraklios Φλάβιος Ἡράκλειος, lat. Flavius Heraclius; …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Heraclius, SS. (4) — 4SS. Heraclius et Soc. MM. (11. März). Der hl. Heraclius wird zu obigem Tage von vielen Martyrologien als Martyrer zu Karthago genannt. Zugleich mit ihm werden erwähnt: Bosimus, Alexander16, der Bischof Philomus, Candidus10, Valerius, Quirillus,… …   Vollständiges Heiligen-Lexikon

  • Heraclius, S. (12) — 12S. Heraclius, Ep. (8. Juni, al. 9. Juli). Dieser hl. Heraclius folgte am Anfange des 6. Jahrhunderts dem hl. Bischof Agricius3 zu Sens (Senones). Er war ein thatkräftiger Bischof, voll heiligen Eifers für die Ausbreitung und Erhöhung der Kirche …   Vollständiges Heiligen-Lexikon

  • Heraclius, SS. (26) — 26SS. Heraclius et Soc. MM. (14. Nov.) Die hhl. Heraclius, Martialis, Donatus102 und Varicus werden im Elenchus als Martyrer angegeben. (El.) …   Vollständiges Heiligen-Lexikon

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.